Numerous pedagogic researchers and educationists have worked for several years in an attempt to find better ways of instruction. Eventually, one of the concepts that they came up with was Instructional Design. Now that there was a concept to improve instructions, a need to devise measures to employ it emerged. This gave way to the development of Instructional Design models.
In our Instructional Design article, we provided an overview of the principal idea behind this concept. Additionally, we presented a few of its common models. This article takes a deeper look into these instructional design models.
I. ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate)
This model consists of five phases –
Examining the need for training by defining the needs of the learners. This determines the need for training, instructional environment, skills, opportunities available, constraints, and the abilities of the learners and trainers.
Determining the objectives of learning and instructional strategies. Additionally, choosing the look, feel, as well as the operation and delivery methods of the instructional material.
Assembling the content into a final design to produce instructional material. Instructional Designers review and revise the content multiple times for quality analysis.
Delivering the finished course to the intended audience/learners, and registering the impact of the product.
Assessing the impact of the instructional material through a variety of evaluation tools.
II. The Assure Model of Instructional Design
Teachers use this model to design and develop the most suitable classroom learning environment. It is an amalgamation of Robert Gagne’s events of instructions, which tries to ensure the effective use of media in lesson delivery.
A – Analyze learners
S – State standards & objectives
S – Select strategies, media, technology, & objectives
This is based on the behaviorist approach to learning. According to Gagne, adults require certain mental conditions for learning. Consequently, the following nine events of instructions were developed using these conditions.
1. Gain the student’s attention.
Activities such as storytelling or asking thought-provoking questions set the foundation for learning and retention of knowledge.
2. Inform students about the objectives.
This step is for the establishment of certain expectations from the course, and to set a criterion for the measurement of success or failure.
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning.
Learners acquire new knowledge using their existing knowledge.
4. Present the content.
This is the most important step for teachers. They must employ their skills and knowledge to come up with new forms of presentation. This is done for the maximum utilization of resources, and for achieving the desired learning outcome.
5. Provide learner guidance.
Supplement the learning material with case studies, classroom activities, discussion papers, and other forms of instructional support materials. This provides a better understanding of concepts.
6. Elicit performance.
Challenge the learners to recollect, employ, and evaluate their learning.
7. Provide feedback.
Use immediate feedback for reinforcement of knowledge.
8. Assess performance.
Testing the learner’s knowledge as per established criteria.
9. Enhance retention and transfer to job.
Using content retention procedures to appropriate job aids and to retain the knowledge gained.
IV. Merrill’s Principles of Instruction Model (2002)
It is a consolidation of five learning principles-
A. Task-Centered principle:
Learning must begin with a real-world task that the learners can relate to.
B. Activation Principle:
Activate the previous knowledge of learners so that they can link it with new knowledge.
C. Demonstration Principle:
The course must illustrate knowledge in multiple ways. This may include visual storytelling so that it caters to the varied learning requirements of learners and helps in knowledge retention.
D. Application principle:
Learners must be taught to apply their new knowledge.
E. Integration Principle:
The learner’s world must be integrated with new knowledge. This can be done through the process of discussions, reflections, and/or presentations of the new knowledge.
V. The Kemp Model of Instructional Design
Also known as the Morrison, Ross, and Kemp Model, incorporates the following 9 steps:
Identifying the problems and specifications of the goals of instructional program design.
Examining the aspects that must receive planned attention.
Identifying the subject content. And, analyzing the task components according to the stated goals and objectives.
Stating instructional objectives for the learners.
Arranging the content as per the instructional unit of logical learning.
Designing instructional strategies to help each learner master the skills.
Planning the appropriate instructional activities.
Developing instruments of evaluation for assessment.
Selecting the appropriate instruction and learning sources.
VI. Kirkpatrick Model of Instructional Design
The Kirkpatrick Model determines a learner’s aptitude by analyzing and evaluating the results of the educational program. It is a four-level process carried out as follows:
Level 1 (Reaction)
Measuring the reaction of the learners to the provided training.
Level 2 (Learning)
Analyzing the level of understanding.
Level 3 (Behavior)
Recording the application of the concepts learned.
Level 4 (Results)
Determining the impact of the material delivered through instructional design.
This model of evaluation is applicable at all stages of training because of its systematic evaluation process. For this reason, it is the most widely used model in business training assessment.
Concluding Point of Note
There are dozens of other instructional design models that teachers/trainers use to create different types of instructions for various training needs. Trainings designed with the help of Instructional Design models prove to be effective in inculcating knowledge about a topic. Trained professionals carry out this task, and they make sure that the lesson is delivered effectively.